Air Pollution | Causes Of Air Pollution | Impact | Measures

Environmental Science: High School Learning:
Air Pollution

~Topics Covered
What is Air and Air Pollution?
Causes Of Air Pollution
Impact Of Air Pollution

~Air And Air Pollution
-Air: mixture of various components like carbon dioxide,nitrogen,oxygen,water vapor or trace gases (less in quantity for example Argon,Xenon,Helium,Neon,Krypton).
-composition of gases: nitrogen (78.08%);Oxygen(20.95%);Carbon Dioxide(0.038);Hydrogen(0.00005%) etc
-Air Pollution: any change in the composition of the gases, which have harmful effects on the environment,is called as “Air Pollution”.

~What is the cause of Air Pollution?
-Air Pollution is caused due to “Air Pollutants”. Air pollutant are the substances in the air which have an adverse effect on humans and ecosystem.
-these pollutant can be any of the following: methane, carbon dioxide,nitrogen oxide,etc.
-these pollutants can either be solid, liquid or in a form of gas, naturally produced or man made.
-six common pollutants are: ground level ozone,lead,sulfur dioxide,nitrogen dioxide,carbon monoxide,particulate matter.
-kinds of pollutants:
*Primary pollutants: produced from processes such as ash from volcanic eruption, vehicle exhaustion etc.For example:carbon monoxide (CO),nitric oxide(NO),sulphur dioxide (SO2),nitrogen dioxide(NO2),ammonia(NH3),particulates(PM),volatile organic compounds(VOCs).
*Secondary Pollutants: not emitted directly from the environment rather are formed in the air after primary pollutants react or interact with some other pollutants. These are produced from the primary pollutants.For example:sulphur trioxide(SO3),ntric acid(HNO3),hydrogen peroxide(H2O2),sulphuric acid(H2SO4),particulates,ozone(PM),ammonium(NH4+).
-there may be pollutants which might fall under both the categories

~Sources Of Air Pollutants
1. Natural: dust particles,gases released from the body processes,pollen dispersal,smoke from wildfires,volcanos,natural radioactivity . (Each point discussed).
2. Man-made:burning of fossil fuels,agricultural activities,landfill activities,exhaust from factories and industries,mining operation,artificial radioactivity.(Each point discussed).

~Impact Of Air Pollution
Effect/ Impact on Environment
1. Global Warming:
2. Acid Rain
3. Green House Effect
4. Hole in Ozone

Effect/Impact on Human Health
1. Irritation,Bronchitis,Headache
2. Reduced capacity of blood to carry oxygen
3. Decrease in vision and causing cardio vascular disorders
4. CO and No react with hemoglobin and reduced O2 carrying capacity of blood
5. Headache and nausea
6. Lung problems
7. Asthma
8. Damage to heart,brain,eyes
9. Heavy metals like lead causing poisoning

Effect/Impact on Plants
1. Decreased yield
2. Bad quality of crop production
3. Decreased growth rate and increased death rate of plants

Effect/Impact on Wildlife
1. Loss of habitat and natural environment
2. Pollutants in air, forcing the species to move further away
3. Chemicals in water affecting marine life
4. Death

1. Creating awareness among people involving the “Reduce, Reuse and Recycle” slogan.
*awareness points *
-ensure area near you is clean
-plant trees along busy streets as they remove particulates,carbon dioxide and absorb noise.
-make use of wind energy and solar energy,as well as other renewable energy,to minimize burning of fossil fuels
-encouraging people to use public transport,walk or use a cycle
-regular check up of our vehicles
-selection of suitable fuel
-industries and waste disposal sites should be situated outside the city
-adapt to good industrial process and practices
-destroying the pollutants by thermal or catalytic combustion

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