The Kyoto Protocol [IGEO.TV]

The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the UNFCCC Convention United Nations Framework on Climate Change, an international agreement that aims to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases that cause global warming: carbon dioxide (CO2) gas methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), plus three fluorinated industrial gases: hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), in an approximate percentage of at least 5%, within the period runs from 2008 to 2012, compared to 1990 emissions.

In 2012 ends the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, this video analyze the evolution of the gas emissions in the signatory countries during this period.

El Protocolo de Kioto es un protocolo de la CMNUCC Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático ,acuerdo internacional que tiene por objetivo reducir las emisiones de seis gases de efecto invernadero que causan el calentamiento global: dióxido de carbono (CO2), gas metano (CH4) y óxido nitroso (N2O), además de tres gases industriales fluorados: Hidrofluorocarbonos (HFC), Perfluorocarbonos (PFC) y Hexafluoruro de azufre (SF6), en un porcentaje aproximado de al menos un 5%, dentro del periodo que va desde el año 2008 al 2012, en comparación a las emisiones al año 1990.

En 2012 termina el primer período de compromiso del Protocolo de Kyoto, en este vídeo se analiza la evolución de la emisión de gases de los países firmantes a lo largo de este tiempo.

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What is KYOTO PROTOCOL? What does KYOTO PROTOCOL mean? KYOTO PROTOCOL meaning – KYOTO PROTOCOL definition – KYOTO PROTOCOL explanation.

The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) human-made CO2 emissions have caused it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew effective December 2012) to the Protocol.

The Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to fight global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to “a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” (Art. 2). The Protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities: it puts the obligation to reduce current emissions on developed countries on the basis that they are historically responsible for the current levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

The Protocol’s first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. A second commitment period was agreed on in 2012, known as the Doha Amendment to the protocol, in which 37 countries have binding targets: Australia, the European Union (and its 28 member states), Belarus, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine have stated that they may withdraw from the Protocol or not put into legal force the Amendment with second round targets. Japan, New Zealand and Russia have participated in Kyoto’s first-round but have not taken on new targets in the second commitment period. Other developed countries without second-round targets are Canada (which withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol in 2012) and the United States (which has not ratified the Protocol). As of July 2016, 66 states have accepted the Doha Amendment, while entry into force requires the acceptances of 144 states. Of the 37 countries with binding commitments, 7 have ratified.

Negotiations were held in the framework of the yearly UNFCCC Climate Change Conferences on measures to be taken after the second commitment period ends in 2020. This resulted in the 2015 adoption of the Paris Agreement, which is a separate instrument under the UNFCCC rather than an amendment of the Kyoto protocol.

The view that human activities are likely responsible for most of the observed increase in global mean temperature (“global warming”) since the mid-20th century is an accurate reflection of current scientific thinking. Human-induced warming of the climate is expected to continue throughout the 21st century and beyond.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) have produced a range of projections of what the future increase in global mean temperature might be. The IPCC’s projections are “baseline” projections, meaning that they assume no future efforts are made to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC projections cover the time period from the beginning of the 21st century to the end of the 21st century. The “likely” range (as assessed to have a greater than 66% probability of being correct, based on the IPCC’s expert judgement) is a projected increase in global mean temperature over the 21st century of between 1.1 and 6.4 °C.

The range in temperature projections partly reflects different projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. Different projections contain different assumptions of future social and economic development (e.g., economic growth, population level, energy policies), which in turn affects projections of future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The range also reflects uncertainty in the response of the climate system to past and future GHG emissions (measured by the climate sensitivity).
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